400 400 THOMAS
Learning English with Thomas
Superfluous use of " if " and " in case of "
不應共存的「if 」和「in case of 」
Using " in case of "correctly 認識 In case of 的涵義和用法 T:Thomas     M:Matthew   T: Hello Matthew! Haven’t been seeing you for quite some time. What are you up to these days? M: Sorry to cool down your cheerfulness. I have been unwell. My doctor told me to call the ambulance, just in case I feel severe pain in my heart.   T: You must take extra care of yourself. Yes, in case of emergency one must do that, or get someone close by to do that at once. M: Thanks for your concern. Certainly. If in case of emergency, I will do that.   T: Exactly. But Matthew, what you just said, if in case of emergency, that’s not correct in English. M: Really? (embarrassingly)   T: To be correct, either we can say, or write, “in case of emergency” OR “if there is an emergency”. “In case of” is a prepositional phrase, used to describe what should be done if something happens. So, adding an “if” to “in case of” is superfluous, and sounds wrong. Do you agree? M: Yes. You’re right. We do need to be careful about even minor things in English. Sorry, I’ve got to go now.   T: Take good care of yourself and get well soon!   T: Matthew您好!好久沒見了。你近來在忙甚麼? M: 恕我掃興地告訴你,我一直感到不舒服。醫生叮囑我,萬一當我感到心胶痛,要叫救護車。   T: 你要多多保重。對,在緊急情況下必須這樣做,或找鄰近的人馬上幫忙。 M: 多謝關心。 如果萬一在緊急情況下,我會這樣做。   T: 正是。不過,Matthew,你剛才說「If in case of emergency」,在英文的文法裡是不正確的。 M: 真的嗎?(一臉尷尬)   T: 當說話或寫作時,不論用「in case of emergency」或者「if there is an emergency」,都是正確的。In case of 是介係詞片語 (prepositional phrase),用來描述「假若當事情發生時我們該做些甚麼」。所以,在in case of 前再加上具有「如果、假若」意思的 「if」,則有點多餘及意思重疊。你同意嗎? M: 是的,你說得對。在英語運用上,即使細微事情也需要小心。不好意思,我現在要走了。   T: 保重身體,祝你早日康復!  
kjy04_20221204 b new f
400 400 THOMAS
Learning English with Thomas
In every two hours? —— 畫蛇添足
Avoid using superfluous prepositions  避免錯用介詞“in” T : Thomas   D : David    T : Good morning David! You really are a hardworking young man! I see you almost every day of the week in the Library.   D : Morning Thomas Sir! Not exactly on every day. I try to work here in the Library in every two days.     T : Good habit! But I do need to improve your expressions. You should have said: “every two days” instead of “in every two days “. You can delete the preposition “in”.   D : Ah, I see sir, come to think of it, can I show you a photo I took taking the lift just now? Please take a look and tell me if the English there in the notice is right or not so right.   T : (Taking a quick glance) (“The lift panel is disinfected in every two hours”) Hmm…not entirely correct. Better: …every two hours. They made the same mistake as you did. Do you know how to correct that now?   D : Now I can, sir. It should be: “The lift panel is disinfected every two hours.” Is that right?   T : Haha! You certainly got it – learning fast and applying at once. (Teacher raising his thumb smilingly)     T : 早晨,David!你真的是一勤奮的年輕人!我幾乎天天都在圖書館見到你。   D : 早晨,Thomas老師!並不是每一天。我嘗試每隔兩天留在圖書館溫習。   T : 好習慣!但我需要改善你的英文表述。你應該說:「every two days」而不是說 「in every two days」,你可以刪去當中的介詞 「in」。   D : 原來如此。老師,我剛想起今早乘電梯時拍下來的照片,可以請你看一看嗎?請你看完後,告訴我通告上的英文是否正確。   T : (瞥了一眼)(「The lift panel is disinfected in every two hours」)嗯……這樣寫不完全正確,寫成「every two hours」較佳。 他們跟你一樣犯了相同的錯誤。你現在懂得如何修改嗎﹖   D : 老師,現在我懂了。這應該改為:「The lift panel is disinfected every two hours」,對嗎?   T : 哈哈,你果然是學以致用。(老師欣慰地豎起大姆指)
kjy04_20221127 bf
400 400 THOMAS
Learning English with Thomas
Elevator or Lift —— British or American English?
To learn about British and American variants for the same sense 認識英式和美式英語之別 T : Thomas  J : Joe   J : Hello Thomas! So good to bump into you here. You know what? I was thinking of talking to you. T : Hi Joe! I am glad too, but why did you say that? J : Because I have got a couple of words I am not sure whether they should be considered British or American English words. Here I have got a short list… (showing the list on his phone) T : (saying aloud): garbage; semester; store; cab; downtown; fall; lift; pants; sidewalk…Is that all? J : There should be quite a few more, but those are not on my phone. T : Actually, people like us functioning in English are using such American English words all the time, and the British counterparts as well, interchangeably, so to speak. J : I see. Can you tell me the British equivalent for each? T : Sure…(speaking smilingly)…rubbish for garbage; term for semester; shop for store; taxi for cab; town centre for downtown; autumn for fall; elevator for lift; trousers for pants; and pavement for sidewalk. J : That’s another lesson for me today. Shall we go for lunch together?     J : 您好,Thomas!很高興在這裡碰到你。我正想找你談談。 T : Joe,你好!我也很高興遇上你,不過你為何想找我? J : 因為我有幾個英文詞彙不肯定它們是英式英語,還是美式英語。我這裡有一個名單……(他拿出手機顯示該名單) T :(放聲朗讀):garbage;semester;store;cab; downtown;fall;lift;pants;sidewalk……還有其他嗎? J : 應該還有一些詞彙,不過我沒有紀錄在手機裡。 T : 實際上,像我們使用英語的人,經常使用那些美式英語,而與之有對應涵義的英式字詞,兩者可以交替使用。 J : 原來如此。可以告訴我意思相對應的英式英語嗎﹖ T : 當然可以。(笑著說)……rubbish(垃圾)對應garbage; term(學期)對應semester;shop(商店)對應store; taxi(計程車)對應cab;town centre(市中心)對應downtown;autumn(秋天)對應fall;elevator(升降機) 對應 lift;trousers(長褲)對應 pants;and pavement(行人路)對應 sidewalk. J : 今天又上了一課。不如我們一起吃午餐?
kjy04_20221120b f
400 400 THOMAS
Learning English with Thomas
“Makes your home comes true” —— correct or not?
「Makes your home comes true」—— 是對,還是錯﹖
Correct use of the verb “make” with infinitives 正確使用英文動詞“Make”的不定式(infinitives) T : Thomas   t : Tony    T : Tony, morning! How are you doing lately?   t  :  Could be better.   T : You do sound troubled.   t  :  It’s only this crazy grammar making me fail in drill exercises all the time, especially using infinitives together with verbs like make, let, help, and so on. Can I show you a picture? Is the language there in this ad correct?   T : Ah, it reads “(something) Makes your home comes true”. It’s wrong grammatically, because when you use the verb make, like in this case, the other verb that comes after it must be an infinitive without “ to” and cannot be another main verb.   t  :  How should it be corrected?   T : It should be “(whatever that may be that) makes your home come true”. For one thing, there can only be one main verb in a sentence, so the other verb-like items must be either infinitives or participles.   t  :  Very clear now. Thanks so much!     T : 早晨,Tony!你近來好嗎?   t  :  可以更好。   T : 聽起來你好像有煩惱。   t  :  這些英文文法令我經常在作業練習中犯錯,尤其是使用動詞的不定式,如make、let、help等等。我想你幫我看看這圖片,相中的廣告的用語使用正確嗎?   T : 啊,上面寫著 「(某事)Makes your home comes true」。在語法上而言,這表達是錯誤的。因為當你使用動詞make時,它後面的另一個動詞必定是不定式,不能使用「to」,並且它不能充當另一個主要動詞。   t  :  應該怎樣改寫﹖   T : 正確寫法應該是「makes your home come true」。 有一點必須謹記,英文句子中只能有一個主要動詞,因此在同一句子中貌似動詞的詞彙,必須以不定式(infinitives)或分詞(participles)形式出現。   t  :  我現在很清楚了。感謝你的指導!