Stories Behind Popular Sayings
As the school year is about to end, some students might have mixed feelings. While they look forward to a relaxing summer holiday, they also feel upset because they will miss their classmates and teachers. In particular, Primary 6 students will be saying " goodbye " to teachers and friends as they are taking their big step to secondary education.   " Goodbye " is a parting phrase used to express good wishes when leaving someone. It comes from the term " godbwye " , which was first recorded in the 16th century and is a contraction of the phrase " God be with ye " . Scholars believe that the replacement of " good " for " God " may have been affected by some leave-taking formulaic expressions, such as, " good day " , " good night " and " good evening " .   In early times, the expression was frequently spelt with two words separated as in " good bye " . Later, in the 19th century, it was often hyphenated as " good-bye " . In modern times, it is more commonly written as one word: " goodbye " .   This is my last article for this column, so goodbye to you all.   本學年行將結束,有些學生或許心情複雜。一方面他們期待著一個輕鬆的暑假的來臨,另一方面他們也感到不開心,因為他們會掛念自己的同學和老師。尤其是小六學生將要向老師和朋友說「goodbye」,因為他們正邁向中學教育。   「Goodbye」是臨別語,在離開某人的時候用來表達美好的祝願。它來自「godbwye」一字。Godbwye最初記載於十六世紀,是「God be with ye」的縮寫。學者認為用「good」代替「God」也許是受了一些公式化的道別用語如 good day、good night 和 good evening 的影響。   在早期時代,「good bye」這個用語常常分開兩個字拼寫。後來在十九世紀,它經常用連字號連接:「good-bye」。在現今時代,它通常被寫成一個字:「goodbye」。   這是我為本專欄撰寫的最後一篇文章。在此向大家道別。  
Stories Behind Popular Sayings
Happy Father's Day! You might have already prepared some fun things to do with your father today. What do you call your father? In Hong Kong, children normally address their father in Cantonese. However, it is also quite common for them to call their father in English, " Daddy " .   While the first Father's Day was celebrated in 1910 in the USA in honour of fatherhood, the first known written record of the word " Daddy " occurred much earlier in 1523. This form of direct address comes from the word " Dad " , which itself originates in baby talk. Babies normally learn to talk between 8 months and 12 months old. They find it easier to make sounds like " dada " and " tata " .   So, the word " Daddy” comes from adding the suffix " -y " to " Dad " . And " Dad " is a shortened form of " dada " .   If you do a survey on how children of different languages address their fathers, you will find that a lot of these terms of endearment come from baby noises. For example, the word " Papa " is used in French, Russian and Spanish; the word " Tata " is used in Polish, Romanian, and Czech.   父親節快樂!你也許已經準備了一些有趣的事情與父親在今天一起做。你怎樣稱呼你的父親?在香港,兒童通常用廣東話來稱呼自己的父親。然而, 他們用英文「Daddy」來稱呼自己的父親也是相當普遍。   第一個父親節於1910年在美國慶祝,旨在向為人父者表示敬意。不過,「Daddy」一字首個為人所知的文字紀錄,早在1523年出現。這個直接稱呼來自「Dad」,而Dad本身源自嬰孩的牙牙學語。嬰孩通常在8個月和12個月之間學習說話,他們比較容易發出「dada」和「tata」等聲音。   因此,「Daddy」一字源於在「Dad」加上後綴「-y」,而「Dad」則是「dada」的縮寫。 如果你就不同語言的兒童如何稱呼自己的父親進行調查,你會發現許多這些親暱語是來自嬰孩發出的聲音。例如,法語、俄羅斯語和西班牙語用「Papa」一字;波蘭語、羅馬尼亞語和捷克語用「Tata」一字。  
Stories Behind Popular Sayings
Pocket money
There are always debates about whether parents should give their children pocket money, at what age should children be given pocket money, and how much to give. While pocket money gives children the chance to buy things which make them happy, parents are more concerned that their children should learn money management.   The word " pocket " comes from the Old French word " poke " , meaning " pouch " or " sack " . Several centuries ago, it was used as a measure of quantity in agriculture, for example, a pocket of wool. Before pockets began to be sewn into men's clothes in the 17th century in Europe, people used various kinds of pouches to keep their valuables. They hid a pouch under their clothes or fastened it around their waist.   When the expression " pocket money " first appeared in the 17th century, it meant a small amount of money carried in the pocket for minor expenses, not especially for children.   Eventually, it came to mean an amount of money that parents regularly give to their children to spend on their own. This British expression is called "allowance " in the USA.   人們經常爭論:父母應否給子女零用錢(pocket money)?兒童應該在甚麼年齡獲得零用錢?父母應該給多少零用錢?雖然零用錢讓兒童有機會買到令自己開心的東西,但是父母更關注的是,子女應當學習金錢管理。   英語「pocket」一字來自古法語poke,意即小袋或袋。數世紀前,它被用作農業的數量單位,例如一袋羊毛。在17世紀歐洲男士衣服縫上口袋之前,人們用各種各樣的小袋來存放貴重物品。他們把小袋藏在自己的衣服下面或扣緊在自己的腰部上。   當「pocket money」這個詞語首次在17世紀出現的時候,它的意思是放在隨身攜帶的小袋裡的小量金錢,用作小額開支,並非特別為兒童。   漸漸地,pocket money開始解作父母定期給子女的金錢,讓他們自行決定如何花錢。這個英式英語在美國被稱為「allowance」。  
Stories Behind Popular Sayings
Drum up
This year's Dragon Boat Festival was celebrated on the 3rd of June. Traditionally, dragon boat races are held during this festive time. To help the crew to reach the finish line, a drummer beats a drum to keep the rowers in unison and to maintain morale.   A drum is a percussion instrument which is used to keep a steady beat and create a rhythmic feel in a song. What other uses does a drum have? It can also be used in ceremonies, military processions, and even to send messages over long distances.   In the mid-1800s, the phrase " drum up " appeared in the USA. Its meaning is to try to attract customers and supporters by persistent persuasion. At that time, travelling salesmen in the South kept their wares in a wooden box clad with leather. To let houseowners on a plantation know that they were coming up the road, they would drum on the box with a set of drumsticks. For example:   Her new job is to drum up business.   The teacher hopes to drum up enough students to form a swimming team.   今年的端午節在新曆6月3日慶祝。傳統上,這個節慶日子裡會舉行龍舟賽。為了幫助隊員抵達終點,鼓手不停擊鼓,令划手動作一致及保持士氣。   鼓是敲擊樂器,用來在歌曲中保持穩定的節拍,以及予人韻律和諧的感覺。鼓還有哪些其他用途?它也可用於典禮、軍隊巡遊,甚至是向遠方發出信息。   18世紀中旬,「drum up」這個短語在美國出現。它的意思是試圖透過持久的遊說,吸引顧客和支持者。當時,美國南方的旅行推銷員把貨品存放在一個用皮革包裹著的木箱。為了讓種植園上的屋主知道他們正沿著道路走上來,他們會用一副鼓槌敲擊箱子。例如:   她的新工作是拉(drum up)生意。   老師希望召集到(drum up)足夠的學生來組成一支游泳隊。