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kjy04_20230115 b f
400 400 THOMAS
Learning English with Thomas
2023.01.15
Nouns that can’t be pluralized with an s ╱ es
an s ╱ es 不能加「s」╱「es」的英文名詞
Learning how to use quantifiers to show collective nouns in plural sense 學習如何運用「量詞」展示集體英文名詞的複數形態 T : Thomas  B : Billy T : So nice to see you here Billy. What are you up?   B : Morning Thomas. I am here in the library, doing some search fo rmy project.   T : You’re so hard working.   B : Thanks for the compliment. There are so many projects and essays we need to complete, just two weeks before the semester ends.   T : Why are you frowning?   B : I have been getting remarks from my teachers, saying I made basic mistakes in English. Take this essay for instance, I can’t figure out why the words crossed out in red by my teacher are wrong.   T : Can I have a look?   B : Here, for example, the word “informations” is crossed out; and here the word “hardwares” crossed out; and again, here, this word “aircrafts” crossed out.   T : I can see your problem now. Words such as “information”, “hardware”, “software”, “aircraft”, etc. are what are called collective nouns and they should not be pluralized. Instead, you should write “pieces of information”. For “hardware” you’d say “hardware systems”; and for “aircraft” you’d say “units of aircraft”. Such nouns in English usage need quantifiers to show a plural sense.   B : I see. That’s something I must bear in mind from now on. Thanks so much for the explanation.     T : 很高興在這裡見到你,Billy。你近來好嗎?   B : 早晨,Thomas。我正身處圖書館,為我的報告搜集資料。   T : 你真勤學。   B : 謝謝讚賞。在學期完結前兩週,我們需要完成很多報告和寫作。   T : 你為甚麼皺起眉頭﹖   B : 我一直收到老師的評語,說我的英語常常犯上基礎錯誤。以這篇文章為例, 那些被老師用紅筆刪掉的英文字,我也察覺不到為何不正確。   T : 我可以看一下嗎?   B : 就在這裡, 例如, 「i n f o r m a t i o n s 」一詞被劃掉; 這裡劃掉了 「hardwares」一詞;同樣地,「aircrafts」這個字又被劃掉了。   T : 我現在知道你的問題了。「information」,「hardware」, 「software」,「aircraft」等等在英文文法中被稱為「集體名詞」(collective nouns),不能有複數。反之,你應該寫為「pieces of information」。至於「hardware」,您可以用「hardware systems」(硬件系統);而「aircraft」可以說成「units of aircraft」(飛機單位)。這些名詞,在英文運用上,要加上「量詞」(quantifiers)才能量化。   B : 原來如此。我今後必須牢記這些的知識。非常感謝您的講解。
kjy04b_20230108_fade
400 400 THOMAS
Learning English with Thomas
2023.01.06
Who should get the job done? 誰應該完成工作?
Distinguishing "get the job done" and "have the job done"  區分「get the job done」和「have the job done」的用法 T : Thomas, N : Nathan   T: Good morning Nathan! What have you been up to lately?   N: Hi, Thomas. I have been trying to enrich my vocabulary and expressions. I believe you agree that words are the bridges for communication, at work and at play.   T: So, tell me what you have learned recently?   N: I have been taking in quite a lot, but I am still troubled by some expressions. The words on these expressions are not difficult ones, but once they are put together in a particular way, it beats me!   T: Can you give me an example?   N: Certainly. Take for example the expression “Get the job done”. Why can’t we simply say, “Complete the job”? And there are other similar expressions, like “Have the job done”. Do “get” and “have” mean same?   T: Nathan, you are very observant. “Get the job done” and “Have the job done” are not the same thing. The difference is this: “Get the job done” usually refers to oneself, that is, the speaker or writer of the expression, whereas “Have the job done” suggests that the job is being or will be done by another person for the speaker.   N: I see. Incidentally, the other day my boss said something like that to me. She said, “If you’re too busy to get the documents copied right away, have it done by Sandy.”   T: You’ve got it all, Nathan! Great!   T: 早晨,Nathan!你最近在忙甚麼?   N: 嗨,Thomas。我近來一直忙於增進自己的詞彙量和文字表達方式。相信你也認同,文字是溝通的橋樑,不管在工作還是玩遊戲上。   T: 那麼,可以告訴我你最近學習了甚麼?   N: 我已經學懂了不少,不過仍然弄不清一些英文表達。這些特定的表達形式選用的單詞本身並不艱澀,但是一旦把它們組合起來,我就投降了! 能夠給我舉個例子嗎? 好的。以「Get the job done」(完成工作)為例。為甚麼我們不能簡單地說「Complete the job」?還有其他類似的表達,例如:「Have the job done」。 其實 「get」和「have」所衍生的意思一樣嗎?   T: Nathan,你很細心。「Get the job done」和「Have the job done」並非同一回事。 它們區別在於:「Get the job done」通常所指的是自己,即說話者或作者本人會完成工作;而「Have the job done」即說話者表示,該項工作目前或者將由另一個人完成。   N: 我明白了。前幾天,我的上司剛巧向我說了類似的話。她說:「如果你忙得不能立即複印這份文件,那麼找Sandy代勞。」   T: Nathan你真的學懂了!非常好!  
kjy04_20221218 B f
400 400 THOMAS
Learning English with Thomas
2022.12.18
“First come, first serve” – Why it shouldn’t be expressed like that
「First come, First serve」——為何不應這樣寫﹖
Knowing the use of passive voice. 認識被動式的運用。 T : Thomas  M : Michelle   M : Hi, Thomas! I didn’t notice you. Just arrived?   T : Right. I saw you take the lift, but I just missed the closing lift door. Anyway, it’s great to be invited to this Food Fair… Ah, what have you got there? (pointing at the leaflet in her hand)   M : This is the leaflet from the organisers, indicating that everything here is to follow the rule of “First come, first serve!”   T : Sounds reasonable. Can you say it again in English?   M : “First come, first serve!” Is there anything wrong? Can you explain?   T : English speakers would mostly say, “First come, first served”, where “served” is in the passive voice, and not “serve” as that would be in the active voice. The slogan actually means whoever comes first (to the stand or counter) will enjoy being served. If “serve” is used instead, and not “served”, then the meaning is quite different and would mean whoever comes first will need to serve. That is quite the opposite, turning the customer into a service provider!   M : Such a big difference! I can see it now.   M : Thomas你好!我剛才看不見你。你是否剛到達?   T : 是的。我看見你走進升降機,但我趕不及入內,門剛剛關上。無論如何,很高興獲邀參加這次美食博覽會。你拿著甚麼﹖ (指向她手上的宣傳單張]   M : 這是主辦單位派發的傳單,說這裡一切遵從「先到先得」的規則。   T : 聽起來很合理。不過,你可否用英文再說一遍﹖   M :「First come, First serve」。 是否有不對的地方﹖你可以解釋一下嗎﹖   T : 說英語的人,多數會說 First come, First 「served」用被動式(passive voice),而不是主動式的「serve」,意思是指「誰先來到(攤位),誰就會享用到所需服務。」如果用「serve」, 語意上大有不同,變了 「 當誰先來到(攤位),誰就要提供服務。」兩者的意思幾乎相反——原本光顧的客人變成了服務提供者。   M : 分別原來這麼大!我現在明白了。
kjy04b_20221211_fade
400 400 THOMAS
Learning English with Thomas
2022.12.11
Superfluous use of " if " and " in case of "
不應共存的「if 」和「in case of 」
Using " in case of "correctly 認識 In case of 的涵義和用法 T:Thomas     M:Matthew   T: Hello Matthew! Haven’t been seeing you for quite some time. What are you up to these days? M: Sorry to cool down your cheerfulness. I have been unwell. My doctor told me to call the ambulance, just in case I feel severe pain in my heart.   T: You must take extra care of yourself. Yes, in case of emergency one must do that, or get someone close by to do that at once. M: Thanks for your concern. Certainly. If in case of emergency, I will do that.   T: Exactly. But Matthew, what you just said, if in case of emergency, that’s not correct in English. M: Really? (embarrassingly)   T: To be correct, either we can say, or write, “in case of emergency” OR “if there is an emergency”. “In case of” is a prepositional phrase, used to describe what should be done if something happens. So, adding an “if” to “in case of” is superfluous, and sounds wrong. Do you agree? M: Yes. You’re right. We do need to be careful about even minor things in English. Sorry, I’ve got to go now.   T: Take good care of yourself and get well soon!   T: Matthew您好!好久沒見了。你近來在忙甚麼? M: 恕我掃興地告訴你,我一直感到不舒服。醫生叮囑我,萬一當我感到心胶痛,要叫救護車。   T: 你要多多保重。對,在緊急情況下必須這樣做,或找鄰近的人馬上幫忙。 M: 多謝關心。 如果萬一在緊急情況下,我會這樣做。   T: 正是。不過,Matthew,你剛才說「If in case of emergency」,在英文的文法裡是不正確的。 M: 真的嗎?(一臉尷尬)   T: 當說話或寫作時,不論用「in case of emergency」或者「if there is an emergency」,都是正確的。In case of 是介係詞片語 (prepositional phrase),用來描述「假若當事情發生時我們該做些甚麼」。所以,在in case of 前再加上具有「如果、假若」意思的 「if」,則有點多餘及意思重疊。你同意嗎? M: 是的,你說得對。在英語運用上,即使細微事情也需要小心。不好意思,我現在要走了。   T: 保重身體,祝你早日康復!